Gra o Tron

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Gra o tron
AGameOfThrones.jpg
US Hardcover (2002 Bantam Reissue)
Autor George R. R. Martin
Kraj Stany Zjednoczone
Język Angielski
Serie Pieśń Lodu i Ognia
Gatunek Fantasy
Wydawca Bantam Books (US)
Voyager Books (UK)
Zysk i S-ka (PL)
Wydany 6 Sierpień 1996
Cover Artist Steve Youll
Typ Print (Hardback & Paperback
audiobook & e-book)
Stron 694 (US Twarda okładka)
672 (UK Twarda okładka)
844 (PL Twarda okładka)
835 (US Miękka okładka)
804 (UK Miękka okładka)
773 (PL Miękka okładka)
ISBN ISBN 0553103547 (US Hardback)
ISBN 0002245841 (UK Hardback)
ISBN 0553573403 (US Paperback)
ISBN 000647988X (UK Paperback)
Następny tom  Starcie Królów

Gra o tron (ang. Gra o Tron) pierwszy tom siedmioczęściowej sagi Pieśń Lodu i Ognia, epicka seria fantasy autorstwa George'a R. R. Martina. Miała premierę 6 Sierpnia 1996. The novel was nominated for the 1998 Nebula Award and the 1997 World Fantasy Award[1], and won the 1997 Locus Award.[2] The novella Blood of the Smok, comprising the Daenerys Targaryen chapters from the novel, won the 1997 Hugo Award for Best Novella.

Kontekst

Akcja Gry o Tron ma miejsce w Siedmiu Królestwach na kontynencie zwanym Westeros, przypominającym średniowieczną Europę. W Westeros pory roku trwają latami, czasami nawet dekadami.

Piętnaście lat przed wydarzeniami z powieści, Siedem Królestw zostało rozdarte przez wojnę domową, zwaną "Rebelią Roberta" lub "Wojną uzurpatora". Książe Rhaegar Targaryen uprowadził Lyannę Stark, wzbudzając gniew Rodu Starków oraz przyrzeczonego jej Lorda Roberta Baratheona (od którego imienia wzięła się nazwa rebelii). Szalony król, Aerys II Targaryen, stracił ojca Lyanny i jej najstarszego brata, gdy ci śmieli domagać się jej bezpiecznego powrotu. Drugi brat, Eddard, dołączył do swojego przyjaciela z dzieciństwa, Roberta Baratheona oraz do Jona Arryna, którego on i Robert byli podopiecznymi. Razem wypowiedzieli wojnę panującej dynastii Targaryenów, umacniając jednocześnie sojusz z rodem Tullych (Lord Eddard został przyrzeczony Catelyn Tully, a Lord Arryn Lysie Tully). Potężny ród Tyrellów wciąż wspierał koronę, zaś rody Lannisterów i Martellów grały na zwłokę, co było wypadkową różnego rodzaju zniewag ze strony Targaryenów. Punktem kulminacyjnym wojny była Bitwa nad Tridentem, gdzie zginął książe Rhaegar Targaryen, zabity w pojedynku przez Roberta Baratheona. Lannisterowie zgodzili się w końcu poprzeć Targaryenów lecz ostatecznie oportunistycznie zwrócili się przeciwko nim, plądrując Królewską Przystań. Należący do Gwardii Królewskiej, Jaime Lannister zdradził i zamordował króla Aerysa, a następnie ród Lannisterów przyrzekł posłuszeństwo Robertowi Baratheonowi. Tyrellowie i reszta pozostałych przy życiu rojalistów poddała się, zaś Baratheon ogłosił sie władcą Siedmiu Królestw. Niestety podczas wojny zmarła Lyanna Stark, prawdopodobnie z przyczyn zdrowotnych, krótko po tym jak jej brat odbił fortecę w której była przetrzymywana. Nowo obrany król, poślubił w zastępstwie Cersei Lannister aby scementować sojusz z jej ojcem. Pomimo wiktorii Roberta młodszemu synowi króla Aerysa Viserysowi oraz jego młodszej siostrze Daenerys udało się zbiec za morze, dzięki protekcji ze strony oddanego Targaryenom Willema Darry'ego. Po wojnie Martellowie wybrali drogę izolacjonizmu, jako że siostra księcia Dorana, Elia (żona księcia Rhaegara) i jej malutkie dzieci zostały zamordowane podczas pustoszenia Królewskiej Przystani przez rycerzy służacych Lannisterom.

Sześć lat później król Robert dowiódł swojej determinacji i stanowczości tłumiąc rebelię Lorda Balona Greyjoya z Żelaznych Wysp. Podczas powstania zginęło dwóch najstarszych synów Lorda Balona, zaś najmłodszy Theon został oddany jako zakładnik pod opiekę Eddarda Starka.

Plot summary

Główny artykuł: Chapter Summaries

Gra o Tron follows three principal storylines as they develop in tandem with one another. The novel begins in the year 298 AL (After Landing) and continues for many months, probably into the early months of 299 AL.

In the Siedem Królestw

Eddard Stark, Lord of Winterfell and Warden of Północ, performs the execution of a man of the Nocna Straż who has betrayed his vows and fled from Mur. His sons Robb and Bran, his bastard son Jon Snow, and his ward Theon Greyjoy all attend. After the beheading, Robb finds a dead Wilkor (the sigil of Ród Starków), killed by the antlers of a stag (the sigil of Ród Baratheonów), which had given birth to five pups before it died. Robb and his brothers ask to keep them and Eddard consents, on the condition that the children themselves take care of them, rather than leaving the matter to the servants of Ród Starków. There are five pups, one for each of Eddard's trueborn children: Robb names his Szary Wicher and Bran names his Summer, whilst Eddard's daughters Sansa and Arya name theirs Lady and Nymeria respectively. Eddard's youngest, three-year-old Rickon, names his Kudłacz. Unexpectedly, Jon finds a sixth pup lying separately nearby: an albino runt with white fur and red eyes. Jon claims this one, Duch, for himself.

King Robert Baratheon arrives at Winterfell with his court and many retainers, including his wife, Queen Cersei of Ród Lannisterów, and his children: Joffrey, Myrcella and Tommen. The queen's twin brother, Ser Jaime Lannister of the Gwardia Królewska, and their younger brother Tyrion, the Imp (so named for his dwarfism), also accompany the group. Robert asks Eddard to become the new Namiestnik Króla after the death of the previous office holder, Lord Jon Arryn. Eddard agrees and travels south with his daughters Sansa and Arya, leaving Catelyn, Robb, Bran (now in a coma after a grievous fall from a window) and Rickon at home. Jon Snow elects to travel north to Mur to join the Nocna Straż and is joined by Tyrion, who is eager to see the fabled construction for himself.

Catelyn Stark, learns from her sister Lysa Arryn (widow of the late Lord Jon Arryn) that the Lannisters had Jon Arryn murdered. After Eddard leaves for the south, an attempt is made on Bran's life, thwarted only by the Wilkor Summer. Catelyn realizes that Bran must have seen something and been pushed from the window deliberately, and that the would-be murderers are trying to cover their tracks. She travels by sea to Królewska Przystań and learns from her childhood friend Petyr 'Littlefinger' Baelish that the dagger used in the assassination attempt was last seen in the hands of Tyrion Lannister. Traveling north again, Catelyn and her retainers encounter Tyrion by chance in an inn (as he returns south from Mur) and take him captive to the Orle Gniazdo, where Lady Lysa places him on trial. Unfortunately, Tyrion chooses trial by combat and his champion, a Najemnik named Bronn, wins freedom for him.

In the capital at Królewska Przystań, Eddard investigates Jon's death and learns that Jon Arryn and King Robert's brother, Lord Stannis Baratheon, had discovered that King Robert's three children were actually the products of an incestuous liaison between Queen Cersei and her twin brother Jaime. Spurning the advice of Robert's other brother Renly to take Cersei into custody, Eddard instead offers mercy, telling Cersei to flee. King Robert dies of a mishap whilst hunting and Cersei's eldest son Joffrey is proclaimed King before Eddard can pass the crown to Stannis Baratheon, Robert's true heir. When Eddard moves against him, he is betrayed by Littlefinger. Eddard reluctantly agrees to sign a false confession of treason in return for Sansa and Arya's lives and the chance to go into exile on Mur. Instead, Joffrey has Eddard brutally executed. Whilst Sansa is retained in custody, Arya manages to escape with the help of her fencing instructor Syrio Forel, and Yoren, a recruiting agent for the Nocna Straż.

A civil war, later dubbed the Wojna Pięciu Królów, erupts. Robb Stark leads an army of northmen into the Dorzecze to support Lord Hoster Tully, whose forces had come under attack by Lord Tywin Lannister after Catelyn took Tyrion prisoner. Riverrun, the Tully stronghold, is besieged by an army under Jaime Lannister, whilst Lord Tywin holds a large army south of the River Trident to prevent Robb's advance. Unexpectedly, Robb wins the support of Ród Freyów by agreeing to a dynastic marriage. This allows him to detach his cavalry and cross the Green Fork whilst his infantry carries on to the Trident under Lord Roose Bolton, one of Robb's bannermen. Tywin, joined by the liberated Tyrion (who has won the support of the Górskie Klany of Dolina Arrynów) defeats the Stark footmen before learning that Robb has outmaneuvered him. Shortly afterwards Robb's forces surprise and capture Jaime Lannister before smashing the Lannister army at the Whispering Wood outside Riverrun. Tywin falls back on the strong castle of Harrenhal and orders Tyrion to go to Królewska Przystań and counsel King Joffrey, acting as Hand in his stead.

Lord Renly Baratheon flees south from Królewska Przystań to Wysogród, stronghold of the powerful Ród Tyrellów, and there is declared King of Westeros by acclamation, becoming the second of the war's five kings. Robb Stark becomes the third, when he is proclaimed the Król Północy and of the Trident by all the Stark and Tully bannermen present.

On Mur

In the lands beyond Mur, three men of the Nocna Straż stumble across the massacred bodies of Dzicy. Ser Waymar Royce is confronted by several creatures of ice, the fabled 'Inni' of legend. He fights one, but is killed. The second man, Will, investigates Royce's corpse only for it to come to life and strangle him. The third, Gared, is so terrified of what he sees that he flees south to Mur and then beyond. He is the deserter executed by Eddard Stark in the first chapter of the book.

Jon Snow chooses to join the Nocna Straż when his father departs for Królewska Przystań and travels north with his uncle Benjen Stark, the First Ranger of the Watch. At Mur Jon finds that the Watch is beset with problems. A new Król Za Murem has arisen in the far northern lands to rally the Dzicy to his banner. This man, Mance Rayder, was once a brother of the Watch before fleeing to join the Dzicy. Jon also learns that the Watch is grievously under strength, mustering barely a thousand men to cover the three hundred miles of Mur, and its manpower is now made up of murderers and criminals who chose Mur over execution or imprisonment. Some time after Jon's arrival, Benjen vanishes whilst on a ranging beyond Mur.

Jon and many of the other younger men are remorselessly bullied by the master-at-arms, Alliser Thorne, but Jon concocts a plan for them to stand up to him. Jon wins the friendship of Samwell Tarly, a craven but intelligent boy from Reach, and also that of Maester Aemon. Jon is startled to learn that Aemon is a member of Ród Targaryenów, the grand-uncle of the now-deposed Mad King Aerys II, and the oldest man alive in Westeros.

The Lord Commander of the Watch, Jeor Mormont, is attacked by a corpse which suddenly comes back to life. Jon burns the wight, saving Mormont's life. Shaken, Mormont resolves to lead the Watch beyond Mur in strength to test Mance Rayder's strength. Although news of his father's death and brother's war causes Jon to doubt his calling, he decides his place is with the Watch.

In the East

In the Free City of Pentos, Magister Illyrio Mopatis and the exiled Prince Viserys Targaryen conspire to marry Viserys' thirteen-year-old sister Daenerys to Khal Drogo of the Dothrakowie. Drogo commands a horde of forty thousand mounted warriors whom Viserys plans to use to reclaim his homeland from the usurper Robert Baratheon. Among the wedding gifts are three petrified smok eggs from Ilyrio. Unexpectedly, Daenerys and Drogo find love as they journey east into the vast grasslands of the Morze Dothraków, and Daenerys becomes pregnant with a son, to be named Rhaego after her dead brother. Ser Jorah Mormont, son of the Lord Dowódca Nocnej Straży and a Rycerz exiled from Westeros for dealing in slaves, joins Viserys' entourage as an adviser on the current state of the Siedem Królestw.

Viserys becomes angry about how long he must wait before Drogo decides to invade Westeros and, in a drunken rage, insults Drogo grievously. Drogo decides to crown him on the spot — with molten gold. Daenerys picks up her brother's quest to reclaim the Żelazny Tron, but Drogo is just as obstinate with the moon of his life as he was with the Beggar King. The tables turn when a Westerosi assassin, in the pay of King Robert, nearly kills her and their unborn child; a furious Drogo agrees to invade Westeros. However, during a raid on the peaceful Lhazareen to fund their invasion, Drogo takes a wound fighting a rival khal. Daenerys loses both Drogo and her unborn son to the machinations of a Lhazareen witch, and has the witch burned in Drogo's funeral pyre. Daenerys had previously felt the eggs and found them warm to her touch, but not to others'. Before she had placed them in a small fire and thought that the flames made something in the eggs alive. While the witch was being burned she placed the eggs in the blazing fire. Incredibly, the eggs hatch, and Daenerys Targaryen, the Stormborn, becomes mother to the first three smoks seen in the world for one hundred and sixty years.

Viewpoint Characters

All of the novels in the series use a system for the books where by each chapter concentrates on one character in a third person limited point of view. Thus, the chapter list for each book would read something like: "Bran", "Eddard", "Catelyn", "Eddard", "Tyrion", "Catelyn" etc, with the story flipping back and forth between the main characters.

The tale of Gra o Tron is told through the eyes of 8 POV characters and a one-off prologue POV.

Allusions/references to other works

One of Martin's earliest attempts at writing a fantasy story was 'Dark Gods of Kor-Yuban', which was never published. The two heroes of the short story are the exiled 'Prince R'hllor of Raugg' and his boisterous, swaggering companion 'Argilac the Arrogant'. In an abandoned sequel Argilac teams up with Barron, the Bloody Blade of the Dothrak Empire, to slay the winged demons who killed Barron's grandfather Barristan the Bold. Most of these names reoccur in Gra o Tron: R'hllor is the red god worshiped in the east (although not specifically named until Starcie Królów); Argilac the Arrogant was the last Storm King thrown down by the Targaryens; the Dothrak Empire became the Dothrakowie horse-riders of the eastern plains; and Barristan the Bold was recast as Ser Barristan Selmy of the Gwardia Królewska. Martin covers the origin of these characters and names in his essay 'The Heirs of Turtle Castle' in Dreamsongs: A Retrospective.

Literary significance & criticism


Awards and nominations

  • Locus Award – Best Novel (Fantasy) (Won) – (1997)
  • World Fantasy Award – Best Novel (Nominated) – (1997)
  • Hugo Award – Best Novella for Blood of the Smok (Won) – (1997)
  • Nebula Award – Best Novel (Nominated) – (1997)
  • Ignotus Award – Best Novel (Foreign) (Won) – (2003)

Derived works

Główny artykuł: Derived works

The novel lends its name to several spin-off items based on it, including a HBO Tv series, trading card game, board game a roleplaying game.

Editions

Foreign language editions

  • French: two volumes (hardcover: Pygmalion (1998, 1999); paperback: J'ai Lu (2001)) "Le trône de fer", "Le donjon rouge".
  • Russian: single volume, AST (2001, 2004, 2007): "Игра престолов". Two volumes, AST (1999): "Игра престолов. Книга 1", "Игра престолов. Книга 2".
  • Chinese: "权力的游戏": pinyin: "Quánlì de Yóuxì"; literally "game of power" (Chongqing Publishing, 2005)


References and Notes

Ta strona zawiera treści z angielskiej Wikipedii. Pierwotna treść była w Gra o Tron. Lista autorów jest dostępna w historii strony of Gra o Tron. Podobnie jak w Wiki Westeros, zawartość Wikipedia dostępna jest pod GNU Free Documentation License.

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