Across westeros there are various types and size of watercraft in use from smaller fisher boats and raider vessels, various warships and trade ships, up to the huge war dromonds and the magnificent swan ships that cross the summer seas.
Ships in the World
As far as naval power in the Siedem Królestw, the Major fleets are: In the west Greyjoys fleet, based on the Żelazne Wyspy, In the east royal fleet(most of it destroyed on the Blackwater) based on the Kings landing, In the south the Redwynes fleet based on the Arbor, However Północ has had no strength at sea for hundreds of years, ever since Brandon the Burner put his father's ships to the torch.
In the rest of the Siedem Królestw, many lords whose lands abut the coast, might keep a war galley or three about, for coastal defense against pirates, but only major houses like the Lannisters might have larger and grander fleet of twenty upto thirty ships. Usually for major battle, the lords would call the ships of their various bannermen, just as Stannis summoned the lords of the narrow sea for the battle on the Bitwa nad Czarnym Nurtem. Similarly while Greyjoys main force is the Żelazna Flota, it can also raise hundreds of Żelaźni Ludzie ships(largest fleet), however most of those will be longships made for raids rather than battle, comparable to lesser war galleys elsewhere in the Siedem Królestw. where Larger and more formidable ships are more common like cogs, carracks, and war galleys of various sides, up to the great dromonds with scorpions and catapults on deck.
The Tyrells are in more or less the same position as the Lannisters, though they depend even more on their bannermen, especially the lords of the Tarczowe Wyspy off the mouth of the Mander. The Hightowers have only a few warships, but control Stare Miasto, home to numerous trading vessels.
Ibben make use of Fat-bellied whaling ships, with hulls black with tar. and people of the Summer Islands use Swan ships.
Ships are constantly used in small skirmishes and we have seen full scale naval engagements, for example: Battle of Fair Isle, Bitwa nad Czarnym Nurtem. they are also used for raiding, lords whose lands abut the coast might need to maintain war galley to defend against piracy, however it would be up to the major houses to deal with anything larger than that like the Żelaźni Ludzie raids encountered during the Wojna Pięciu Królów. Ship are also use for support roles providing provision, transporting troops etc.
The basic tactic of naval battles is to get the ship close enough to ram the other ship and then board her and fight the rest of the battle on the deck. Up until they close longbows and crossbows can be used and sometimes siege weapons considering few of the biggest War Galley's.
- Longships, are used as fast raiding ships in see and land. They can travel twice as swiftly as a merchant cog and carry about 1,000 men, specifically a hundred feet long longship would have about fifty oarsmen and room for about a 100 men on the deck.
- War Galley, are larger than normal Galleys and carry more tonnage as a result of being equipped with siege weapons like ballista or catapults, and having a larger compliment of oarsmen and soldiers onboard. The standard tactic for engaging is to disable the opposing ships' sails then ram and board it. They are presumably the kind of ship that GRRM has compared to Venetian/Byzantine dromonds of war
- Swan ship, are known to have 'red archers' companies that help defend the vessel from attack. Women serve on swan ships, and can even command the 'red archers'. 
Types of ships - Specifications
- Galley, Vessels larger than boats, that are primarily propelled by oar power. They are used for warfare, trade and piracy. Due to their low setting they were primarily coastal ships, prefer threading through archipelagos rather than risking even a moderate sea. their large rower crew made them maneuverabil and swift but also required frequent stops for food and water. The galley has supplemental sails to replace or augment the effort of the rowers, particularly during long journeys. The ability to travel swiftly without regard to the direction or strength of the wind became invaluable for daylight expeditions across open water. (Real-life, practical upper limit for a galley fast and maneuverable enough for warfare was around 25-30 oars per side. By adding another level of oars, the galley could be made shorter with as many rowers, while making them strong enough to be effective ramming weapons.)
- Longships, are smaller type of Galley, primarily used by the Żelaźni Ludzie. They are long, narrow, light, wooden boat with a shallow-draft hull designed for speed. The ship's shallow draft allowed navigation in waters only one metre deep and permitted beach landings, while its light weight enabled it to be carried over portages. Longships were also double-ended, the symmetrical bow and stern allowing the ship to reverse direction quickly without having to turn around; this trait proved particularly useful in northern latitudes where icebergs and sea ice posed hazards to navigation. Longships were fitted with oars along almost the entire length of the boat itself. Later versions sported a rectangular sail on a single mast which was used to replace or augment the effort of the rowers, particularly during long journeys. GRRM has compared them to Viking longboats.
- Cog, is mostly propelled by sails, which made it difficult to sail, especially upwind, and it was hostage to breezes and currents in a way that the swift galley was not. however it could better manage rough seas and its small crew and ample storage space gave it greater freedom of movement. making it perfect for trade or equipment transport.
- Carracks, large ocean-going vessel. Stable in heavy seas, and roomy enough to carry provisions for long voyages.
- Swan ship, they're called so in the Siedem Królestw for their great white sails and figureheads which are often carved in the shape of birds, are very large ocean-going vessel designed and built in the Wyspy Letnie, with a good wind behind them can outrun any galley. However, they are helpless when becalmed. They have High-masts and high forecastles. 
- Whalers, Fat-bellied ships with huge hulls black with tar from Ibben used to hunt and process whales in the Morze Dreszczy.
- Some of the descriptions are based on real life parallels.
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