Valyriańskie Włości, was a great empire that span much of the continent of Essos, but has since fallen to ruin, approximately one hundred years before Aegon's Landing, when it was brought down by cataclysmic event known as the Zagłada Valyrii. At its prime, the Valyriańskie Włości encompassed most of the eastern continent and reached as far as the current Wolne Miasta and the island of Smocza Skała off the coast of Westeros. The Valyriańskie Włości was an advanced civilization and the dominant military and cultural power of the known world. Its capital was the city Valyria.
Valyria was once a minor civilization of peaceful sheep-herding folk living on the Valyrian peninsula. Until the Valyrians discovered Smoks lairing in the Fourteen Fires, a ring of volcanoes on the Valyrian Peninsula. The Valyrians tame the dragons with magic and mastered the technique of raising and training the dragons into devastating weapons of war. They began expanding their influence, establishing the Freehold with Valyria as its capital. There, magic flowered, topless towers rose toward the heavens where Smoks soared, stone sphinxes gazed down through eyes of garnet, and smiths forged swords of legendary strength and sharpness; and with their Smoks and Magia they began expanding their influence.
- Rise to Power: Some five thousand years ago, in the early days of Valyria, it was involved in a series of great wars against the Old Empire of Imperium Ghisarczyków, which at that time controlled much of the eastern continent. With the help of Smoks, Valyria was victorious each time and in the last time they destroyed the Imperium Ghisarczyków, razing its capital Old Ghis to the ground and sowed its fields with salt, sulfur, and skulls. After its conquest of Ghis, Valyria expended its influence over the surviving Ghiscari colonies of Zatoka Niewolnicza and continued to continued to conquer and colonize farther.
- War against the Rhoyne: When the Valyrians turned their eyes to the ancient and high civilization of the Rhoynarowie, Prince Garin the Great led an army of a quarter of a million men against Valyria. However, it was futile and their defeat was disastrous. The remnants fled to Dorne, led by a warrior queen Nymeria, the singers say her ten thousand ships were filled with women and children, suggesting all (or most) of the men of fighting age had died in the conflict with Valyria.
- Valyrian Imperialism & Western Expansion: The Valyriańskie Włości (technically never an Empire) continued to expand and conquer further west, capturing many slaves from its conquered lands and using them to mine great wealth from the Fourteen Flames, build great cities and roadways that led to Valyria. Cities built by the Valyriańskie Włości include Oros, Mantarys, Tyria, and all of the Wolne Miasta except Bravos. At the height of its power, the Freehold stretched over most of the eastern continent. Of the fabled great cities, the topless towers are remembered for their great beauty.
- Zagłada Valyrii, a cataclysmic event that took place approximately one hundred years before Aegon's Landing, following which the city Valyria was utterly destroyed and Valyriańskie Włości crumbled and was no more. The Doom fragmented the land surrounding the city itself into numerous smaller islands, creating the Smokng Sea between them. The area is now described as "demon-haunted", and most people are afraid to go there, as it is said, "The Doom still rules in Valyria."
Most of Valyria's culture, language, and craft was lost in the Doom. Valyrians descendants scattered across the world, many across the surviving Valyrians colonies, which gained independence after the Doom and are know as the Wolne Miasta; and across the cities of Zatoka Niewolnicza. Those Valyrians have become intermarried and mixed with other peoples, they continue to speak in various local dialect of Valyrian.
Valyria remembered for its ability to raise and command dragons, using them as weapons of war. Which was demonstrated by the Targaryens, the last of the known Valyrian Smoklords, who used that knowledge to conquer and rule the Siedem Królestw. Valyria is also remembered for forging weapons made of Valyriańska stal, a magical alloy used to make weapons of unparalleled quality. The secret of forging such metal was apparently lost with Valyria, making those remaining weapons highly treasured and extremely rare.
Beliefs and Customs
The 'Freehold of Valyria' was neither a kingdom nor an empire. Instead, all "free holders" -- freeborn landowners -- had a say in its governance. In practice, however, families of great wealth, high birth, and strong sorcerous ability tended to dominate.
Valyrians spoke the Starovalyriański language. They had great skill in shaping stone. It is often said that the old wizards of Valyria did not cut and chisel stone, but worked it with fire and Magia as one might work clay, although much of their knowledge is now lost. Valyrian roads, known as Smok roads, still exist today as monument to their work  as well as Smocza Skała castle.
The Valyrians used thousands of Niewolniks from across the continent, in the blisteringly hot mines underneath the Fourteen Flames, who burned and died, to find gold and silver. Slave revolts were common in the mines, but the Valyrians were strong in sorcery and able to put them down. When there was war, the Valyrians took thousands of slaves, and when there was peace they bred them.
The Valyrians had a number of different gods, among them are Balerion, Meraxes and Vhagar. Aegon the Conqueror had named his dragons for them, although he had converted to the faith of the Seven. Additionally the Targaryens practiced polygamy and incestuous marriage, however it is unknown if this is a Valyrian custom or instead a specifically Targaryen trait to keep their bloodline pure.
Its possible that the titanic clashes between Valyria and the Imperium Ghisarczyków are echo of the Punic wars between Rome and Carthage over control of the Mediterranean.
References and Notes
- Uczta dla Wron, Rozdział 22, Arya II.
- Nawałnica Mieczy, Rozdział 23, Daenerys II.
- Cytadela, So Spake Martin, June 26 2001
- Gra o Tron, Rozdział 41, Jon V.
- Gra o Tron RPG and Resource Book, Guardians of Order
- Nawałnica Mieczy, Rozdział 8, Daenerys I.
- Uczta dla Wron, Rozdział 28, Cersei VI.
- Taniec ze Smokami, Rozdział 1, Tyrion I.
- Gra o Tron, Dodatek.
- Nawałnica Mieczy, Rozdział 32, Tyrion IV.
- SSM:Targaryens, valyria, June 26, 2001.
- Gra o Tron, Rozdział 23, Daenerys III.
- Taniec ze Smokami, Rozdział 6, Sługa Kupca.
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